Organic Chemistry 2

Protecting Groups for Amines – Carbamates

Protecting Groups for Amines – Carbamates

June 7, 2018

An Introduction To Simple Peptide Synthesis In a recent post [Amides: Synthesis, Properties, and Nomenclature] we went through 3 common ways of making amides: Adding amines to acyl halides / anhydrides Partial hydroly…

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Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts Reactions

Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts Reactions

May 30, 2018

Intramolecular Reactions Here is an instant formula for an organic chemistry exam question. Start with a straightforward reaction that students understand fairly well,  like the Williamson Ether synthesis…. (dr…

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Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions (3) – Friedel Crafts Alkylation and Acylation

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions (3) – Friedel Crafts Alkylation and Acylation

May 17, 2018

Today’s post is on the Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation reactions. Quick summary: This is the third in a series of three posts on the key electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) reactions in introductor…

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Nucleophilicity of Amines

Nucleophilicity of Amines

May 7, 2018

Bonus Topic – Nucleophilicity Of Amines The relative nucleophilicity of amines doesn’t get a  lot of coverage (translation: doesn’t get tested) in many organic chemistry courses, but if we’re going to…

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Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (2) – Nitration and Sulfonylation

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (2) – Nitration and Sulfonylation

April 30, 2018

Today’s topic: nitration and sulfonylation of benzene: In the previous post on halogenation via electrophilic aromatic substitution, we saw that this electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction proceeded in thr…

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Reactions of Sugars: Glycosylation and Protection

April 24, 2018

If reactions are the meat of an organic chemistry course, then nomenclature is the bun – and you’d be forgiven for thinking that the content in this chapter on sugars has been a little, er, “carb-hea…

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Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (1) – Halogenation

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (1) – Halogenation

April 18, 2018

Now that we’ve spent ample time digging into the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution,  activating and deactivating groups, and ortho- ,para– and meta– directors, we’re finally rea…

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Molecular Orbitals in the Diels Alder Reaction

Molecular Orbitals in the Diels Alder Reaction

March 23, 2018

Today we’re going to go into the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction from a molecular orbital perspective. Let’s recap where we are with the Diels-Alder so far: The Diels-Alder reaction combines a diene …

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Disubstituted Benzenes: The Strongest Electron-Donor “Wins”

Disubstituted Benzenes: The Strongest Electron-Donor “Wins”

March 19, 2018

Having gone through the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution, explored activating and deactivating substituents, and seen the importance of directing groups, let’s now take the opportunity to use t…

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Why are halogens ortho- para- directors?

March 5, 2018

The previous post in this series tried to show that the key to understanding why a substituent is an ortho-, para- director or meta– director lies in understanding how it influences the stability of the ort…

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