Master Organic Chemistry Reaction Guide

Formation of hydrates from aldehydes/ketones and H2O

Description: Addition of water to an aldehyde or ketone results in the hydrate [otherwise known as a “geminal diol”]

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2 thoughts on “Formation of hydrates from aldehydes/ketones and H2O

    1. Hi Carrie, the difference is one extra step.

      Under basic conditions, HO- would attack the carbonyl carbon in an “addition” step. Then in the second step, the resulting O- would be protonated by water to give OH
      [2 steps]

      Under acidic conditions, you’d protonate the carbonyl oxygen, which makes it a better electrophile. Then, water would attack the carbonyl carbon. Then, there’s be a deprotonation of the oxygen that just attacked (since now it’s R-OH2 + ) by a molecule of solvent (H2O) to give the neutral hydrate.
      [3 steps]

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