pi donation

Activating and Deactivating Groups In Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

Activating and Deactivating Groups In Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

September 26, 2017

Quick summary on what we’ll talk about today, on activating and deactivating groups in electrophilic aromatic substitution: There’s a lot to this post, so here’s a quick index: Electrophilic Aromatic…

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The Mesomeric Effect And Aromatic Amines

April 28, 2017

We’ve seen that several key factors influence the basicity of amines – charge, resonance, inductive effects, pi donor / pi acceptor behavior, hybridization and even the contribution of the nitrogen lone pa…

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In Summary: Resonance

In Summary: Resonance

December 22, 2011

After all these posts about resonance, I thought it would be good to have a post summarizing what’s been discussed so far. One of the key skills in analyzing the reactivity of a molecule is to be able to figure …

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Exploring Resonance:  Pi-Donation

Exploring Resonance: Pi-Donation

December 15, 2011

You’d think after five or six posts on resonance, that would be enough. But NO, friends, it just keeps going. I promise that today’s post is actually useful, although to be honest it’s probably most …

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Are these molecules conjugated?

Are these molecules conjugated?

March 8, 2011

If Org 2 has an overall theme, it’s “resonance”. Today’s post has a very simple message. Atoms with lone pairs, π bonds, radicals, and carbocations can participate in resonance: atoms that la…

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Carbonyl Chemistry: 10 Key Concepts (Part 1)

Carbonyl Chemistry: 10 Key Concepts (Part 1)

April 4, 2010

The weaker the base, the better the leaving group. Electron withdrawing groups make the carbonyl more electrophilic. Electron donors make the carbonyl *less* electrophilic. Carboxylic acid derivatives always protonate…

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