5 Factors That Affect Basicity of Amines

5 Factors That Affect Basicity of Amines

April 26, 2017

What are the most important factors that affect the basicity of amines? Previously, we’ve seen how to evaluate the basicity of amines by examining the pKa of its conjugate acid (pKaH). (The higher the pKaH, th…

Read the full article →
Basicity of Amines And pKaH

Basicity of Amines And pKaH

April 18, 2017

How do you measure the basicity of an amine? Case in point: what’s a stronger base: pyridine or piperidine? Care to make a prediction? If you said piperidine, congratulations – it is indeed a stronger bas…

Read the full article →
More On 1,2 and 1,4 Additions To Dienes

More On 1,2 and 1,4 Additions To Dienes

April 11, 2017

In the last post we covered 1,2 and 1,4 additions to dienes, specifically the addition of strong acid (e.g. HCl or HBr) to dienes. To recap: In Org 1 we learned that addition of HCl and HBr to normal, isolated alkenes…

Read the full article →

Antiaromaticity

March 27, 2017

Here’s a quick summary for today’s post, which concerns a very interesting (and rare) property of certain molecules called “anti-aromaticity”. In our previous posts in our series on aromaticity…

Read the full article →

Reactions of Dienes: 1,2 and 1,4 Addition

March 22, 2017

In today’s post we’ll discuss  1,2- and 1,4- addition to dienes – specifically, the addition of strong acid such as HBr. Here’s the summary of the key points.  Addition To Alkenes, Revisited …

Read the full article →
“Is This Molecule Aromatic?” Some Practice Problems

“Is This Molecule Aromatic?” Some Practice Problems

March 3, 2017

Our last post in this series on aromaticity went through the 4 conditions a molecule must fulfill in order to be aromatic. First, it must be cyclic Second, every atom around the ring must have an available p-orbital T…

Read the full article →

Pi Molecular Orbitals of Butadiene

February 28, 2017

In the last post in this series we built up the pi molecular orbitals of the allyl pi-system, consisting of three consecutive p orbitals in conjugation. We saw that: The number of molecular orbitals (n) for a pi-syst…

Read the full article →

Optical Purity and Enantiomeric Excess

February 24, 2017

In our last post on optical rotation, we saw that when Louis Pasteur crystallized a salt of a compound then known as “racemic acid” he discovered that it formed two different types of crystals. When redis…

Read the full article →
Rules For Aromaticity

Rules For Aromaticity

February 23, 2017

In the last post we introduced the concept of aromaticity, a property of some unusually stable organic molecules such as benzene. Although some aromatic molecules are indeed fragrant (hello, vanillin! ) the term &#…

Read the full article →
Molecular Orbitals of The Allyl Cation, Allyl Radical, and Allyl Anion

Molecular Orbitals of The Allyl Cation, Allyl Radical, and Allyl Anion

February 16, 2017

In the last post, we showed how to build a molecular orbital (MO) diagram for a typical C-C pi bond. We saw that: The number of molecular orbitals equalled the number of contributing atomic orbitals. The overlap of …

Read the full article →