Carbohydrates

Reactions of Sugars: Glycosylation and Protection

April 24, 2018

If reactions are the meat of an organic chemistry course, then nomenclature is the bun – and you’d be forgiven for thinking that the content in this chapter on sugars has been a little, er, “carb-hea…

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The Big Damn Post Of Sugar Nomenclature

The Big Damn Post Of Sugar Nomenclature

February 19, 2018

There’s a lot of sugar nomenclature to know! This post aims to collect the most commonly encountered terms in a typical second-semester organic chemistry course. This reference document from IUPAC was extremely …

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Converting a Fischer Projection To A Haworth (And Vice Versa)

Converting a Fischer Projection To A Haworth (And Vice Versa)

January 25, 2018

Here’s a relatively common problem in the realm of sugar chemistry: “Convert this (sugar) from the Fischer projection to a cyclic pyranose form as a Haworth projection.” (the reverse question can be …

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The Haworth Projection

The Haworth Projection

January 11, 2018

Let’s introduce the Haworth Projection, a frequently encountered convention for depicting sugars. “What!?” you may ask.  Yet another drawing convention? At this late stage of the course? And isnR…

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Reducing Sugars

Reducing Sugars

September 12, 2017

What’s a reducing sugar, and why is it important? Here’s a quick summary. Full details in the post below. Better Living Through Chemistry Q.  Can you think of a situation where it might be useful to be ab…

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Mutarotation

Mutarotation

August 17, 2017

In our recent post on ring-chain tautomerism, we said that there are two isomers of D-glucose in its 6-membered ring (“pyranose”) form. These two diastereomers – which, to make matters more confusing…

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Pyranoses and Furanoses: Ring-Chain Tautomerism In Sugars

Pyranoses and Furanoses: Ring-Chain Tautomerism In Sugars

July 13, 2017

The Many Forms Of Glucose What’s the structure of glucose? A simple question! but one with many “right” answers. The first question to ask, which we covered in our recent post on D- and L- sugars,…

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D and L Sugars

May 24, 2017

What differentiates “D-glucose” from “L-glucose” ? Or D-alanine from L-alanine? What’s this D- and L- nomenclature, anyway? For everyone in a rush, here is the quick and dirty answer: For…

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