Ace Your Next Organic Chemistry

With these Downloadable PDF Study Guides

Our Study Guides


Nucleophilicity of Amines

Bonus Topic – Nucleophilicity Of Amines The relative nucleophilicity of amines doesn’t get a  lot of coverage (translation: doesn’t get tested) in many organic chemistry

Read more

Nucleophiles and Electrophiles

Nucleophiles and Electrophiles, Nucleophilicity and Electrophilicity All through the series on understanding where electrons are, and how they flow, we’ve been talking about how the

Read more

Nucleophilicity vs. Basicity

Understanding The Differences Between Nucleophilicity vs Basicity Following up on Nucleophiles and Electrophiles, here’s a common question students have about nucleophilicity: 1. What’s the difference

Read more

Acid Base Reactions Are Fast

Acid-Base Reactions Are Generally Faster Than Substitution Or Addition Reactions  Here is a very common dilemma in organic chemistry as you move through the latter parts

Read more

Carbonyl Chemistry: 10 Key Concepts (Part 1)

The weaker the base, the better the leaving group. Electron withdrawing groups make the carbonyl more electrophilic. Electron donors make the carbonyl *less* electrophilic. Carboxylic acid derivatives always protonate on carbonyl first. Steric bulk slows down reactions.

Read more

Carbonyls: 10 key concepts (Part 2)

5 more key concepts: Carbonyls make adjacent alkyl groups more acidic, the more electrophilic the carbonyl, the more acidic its alpha protons, carbonyls activate alkenes toward nucleophilic attack, reactivity of alpha beta unsaturated carbonyls is proportional to the stability of its enolate, enolates are nucleophiles.

Read more