Home / Alkyne Reaction Patterns – Hydrohalogenation – Carbocation Pathway
Alkyne Reaction Patterns – Hydrohalogenation – Carbocation Pathway
Last updated: September 15th, 2023 |
Alkyne Hydrohalogenation – Addition of HX To Alkynes – HCl, HBr, and HI
In the previous three posts on alkynes we’ve introduced some new reactions that are specific to alkynes (versus alkenes):
- deprotonation (and subsequent substitution) (See Post: The Two Most Important Reactions of Alkynes)
- partial reduction to alkenes (See Post: Partial Reduction of Alkynes)
- formation of aldehydes and ketones through net “hydration”. (See Post: Hydroboration and Oxymercuration of Alkynes)
With all the focus on the ways in which alkyne chemistry can differ from alkene chemistry, it’s helpful to be reminded of all the ways in which they are similar.
In this post we’ll go back to a key reaction mechanism pattern we observed with alkenes: the so-called, “carbocation pathway” that includes addition of HX and H3O+ and explore how many of the reactions of alkenes we’re familiar with can also be used with alkynes.
Table of Contents
- Addition of Hydrogen Halides (HCl, HBr, HI) To Alkynes – Once
- Addition Of A Second Equivalent Of HX To A Vinyl Halide Gives A Geminal Dihalide
- Addition of Hydrogen Halides To Alkynes – The Mechanism
- Comparing Alkenes and Alkynes In The “Carbocation Pathway”.
- Summary: Addition of Hydrogen Halides To Alkynes
- Notes (+ Termolecular Mechanism!)
- (Advanced) References and Further Reading
The three major examples in this category are the reaction of hydrohalic acids (H-Cl, H-Br, and H-I) with alkynes. If you recall, when added to alkenes, these reagents were:
- attacked by the π bond of the alkene to give a carbocation on the most substituted carbon, giving “Markovnikov” regioselectivity (See Post: Markovnikov’s Rule) followed by
- attack of halide ion on the carbocation.
Since alkynes merely differ from alkenes in the addition of a second π bond, we would expect that these reactions would also work for alkynes as well – and they do!
If we treat an alkyne with a single equivalent of H–Cl [note – we’ll just use H-Cl in all of these examples, but HBr and HI work in exactly the same way] we end up forming an alkenyl chloride.
Note that the chlorine atom ends up attached to the most substituted carbon of the alkene [“Markovnikov” regioselectivity].
If we just use one equivalent of HX, we can get the reaction to stop at the alkenyl halide stage.
You might be wondering if it’s possible to for this π bond to react with a second equivalent of H-Cl. The answer is yes. [Note – it is possible to just “stop” the reaction at this stage if we use just one equivalent, because the product (alkenyl chloride) is less reactive towards HCl than the starting alkyne].
Indeed, if we add a second equivalent of H-Cl, it adds to either side of the C-C π bond, giving us the product where two chlorine atoms are on the same carbon. By the way, we call this a “geminal” dichloride (think Latin – “gemini” = twins).
We can also get this product if we simply add two equivalents of H-Cl to the starting alkyne.
So how might this reaction work? In a very similar fashion to how H-Cl adds to alkenes.
The first step is protonation of the alkyne with H-Cl in such a manner as to give the most stable carbocation intermediate.
Since carbocations are stabilized to a greater extent by electron releasing alkyl substituents than by hydrogen, the new carbocation will form at the end of the alkyne bearing the carbon substituent.
In the next step, the carbocation is attacked by the chloride ion to give the alkenyl chloride.
What about the second equivalent of H-Cl ? Given the fact that the geminal dichloride is the product here, the most reasonable mechanism for its formation is merely a repeat of the steps from the first reaction (as shown).
However it’s worth pointing out one interesting feature. Note that the carbocation in this case bears a chlorine substituent. Since carbocations are electron poor, and chlorine is quite an electronegative element, it’s interesting to point out that the electron releasing ability of the alkyl group [and the ability of chlorine to donate a lone pair to the carbocation] “win out” here over the electron-withdrawing character of the chlorine.
[If you go on to second-semester organic chemistry and cover the reactions of aromatic rings, you’ll see that Cl and other halide ions act as pi-donors toward adjacent carbocations. See post: Why Are Halogens Deactivating ortho-para Directors?]
As mentioned above, the reactions of alkynes with HBr and HI (as well as HF, just in case you’re curious) follow the exact same pathway.
[Note: there is considerable evidence to suggest that this reaction in fact proceeds not through a carbocation intermediate, but through a “termolecular” reaction incorporating two equivalents of H-X and the alkyne. This is covered inconsistently in courses and textbooks. I strongly suggest you double check your textbook to verify how it is taught in your course. See Note 1].
It’s probably worth tying back this post to the post on alkenes and the carbocation pathway, noting the similarities and differences between the chemistry of alkenes and alkynes. Hopefully this table will prove useful:
As with alkenes, reactions that follow this pathway proceed through a carbocation intermediate and provide the “Markovnikov” products as major.
The key difference in this pathway is that hydration of alkenes gives alcohols, whereas hydration of alkynes gives carbonyl derivatives (i.e. ketones/aldehydes) after keto-enol tautomerism of the intermediate enol.
In the next post, we’ll explore the “3-membered ring” pathway with alkynes.
Next Post: Alkynes – The 3-Membered Ring Pathway
- Alkyne Halogenation: Bromination, Chlorination, and Iodination of Alkynes
- Alkyne Reactions – The “Concerted” Pathway
- Alkynes Are A Blank Canvas
- Alkyne Reactions Practice Problems With Answers (MOC Membership)
- Alkenes To Alkynes Via Halogenation And Elimination Reactions
- Acetylides from Alkynes, And Substitution Reactions of Acetylides
- Partial Reduction of Alkynes With Lindlar’s Catalyst or Na/NH3 To Obtain Cis or Trans Alkenes
- Acid-Catalyzed Addition of H2O To Alkenes
The intermediacy of vinyl carbocations in addition to alkynes seems to belong in the bucket of “mechanisms that are oversimplified for an introductory audience”, with the hope that textbooks will reach consensus in the future.
Prof. Hilton Weiss of Bard College writes:
I’ve done a lot of work on this and, of course, I believe my own results. My initial paper denying the vinyl cation intermediate (before doing any research) was in JChemEd 1993, p 873… You might look at Maitland Jones’s textbook or Carey and Sundberg. Actually my current belief is that the vinyl cation is EXTREMELY RARE in additions to alkynes. In Stang’s paper on the rearrangement of the “t-butyl vinyl cation” by solvolysis of the corresponding triflate, he made the triflate ester by adding trifluoromethane sulfonic acid to t-butylacetylene. This addition occurred with NO rearrangement. If triflic acid (pKa =-10) won’t protonate an alkyne, nothing will. Conjugated alkynes (e.g. phenylacetylene) can form conjugated vinyl cations but only in strong acids. Aqueous acids are not even close. (H3O+ =-1.7, HBr = -9, HCl = -7). I would not be surprised if the strongest acids add via a short-lived ion pair but even that is rare. Most textbooks say that alkenes and alkynes react by the same mechanism: it’s easier for students as long as you don’t look too close. By the way, the termolecular mechanism does not involve a proton and a halide ion attacking the alkyne at the same time; too improbable. First there is a reversible pi complex between acid and alkyne followed by a halide attached anti periplanar at the more positive carbon.
Thank you to Prof Weiss for writing. A link to the J. Chem. Ed. article is here.
The addition of HX to alkynes is believed to go through a vinyl cation after initial protonation of the alkyne.
- Polar additions to olefins and acetylenes. V. Bimolecular and termolecular mechanisms in the hydrochlorination of acetylenes
Robert C. Fahey and Do-Jae Lee
Journal of the American Chemical Society 1968, 90 (8), 2124-2131
Hydrogen chloride adds to aryl acetylenes in acetic acid to give mixtures of a-chlorostyrenes and the corresponding vinyl acetate.
- Reaction of acetylenes with hydrogen chloride in acetic acid. Effect of structure upon AdR2 and Ad3 reaction rates
Robert C. Fahey, Michael T. Payne, and Do-Jae Lee
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 1974, 39 (8), 1124-1130
The preference for a mechanism depends on the individual structure of the alkyne and the overall reaction conditions.
- Solvolysis of vinyl triflates. Effect of alkyl substituents, solvents, and added nucleophiles
Richard H. Summerville, Carol A. Senkler, and Paul v. R. Schleyer
Journal of the American Chemical Society 1974, 96 (4), 1100-1110
- Stereochemistry of vinyl cations and vinylic substitutions
H. Summerville and Paul v. R. Schleyer
Journal of the American Chemical Society 1974, 96 (4), 1110-1120
Alkynes react when heated with trifluoroacetic acid to give addition products. Mixtures of syn and anti addition products are obtained, and similar reactions occur with trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid. These reactions presumably also proceed through a vinyl cation intermediate.
- Theoretical investigations on carbocations. Structure and stability of C3H5+,C4H9+(2-butyl cation), C5H5+,C6H7+(protonated benzene), and C7H11+(2-norbornyl cation)
Hans Joachim Koehler and Hans Lischka
Journal of the American Chemical Society 1979, 101 (13), 3479-3486
One mechanism that has been proposed for this reaction is initial protonation of the alkyne via a bridged intermediate. This paper shows that this hydrogen-bridge structure is not energetically feasible. Various MO calculations place the bridged ion 30-45 kcal/mol above the vinyl cation in energy.
- Kinetics of the acid-catalyzed hydration of allene and propyne
Paul Cramer and Thomas T. Tidwell
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 1981, 46 (13), 2683-2686
Solvent isotope effects are indicative of a rate-determining protonation.
- Substituent effects on the acid hydration of acetylenes
Annette D. Allen, Yvonne Chiang, A. J. Kresge, and Thomas T. Tidwell
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 1982, 47 (5), 775-779
Alkyne reactivity increases with addition of electron-donating substituents. The reactivity of alkynes is somewhat more sensitive to substituent effects than is the case for alkenes.
- 2-Butyne and hydrogen chloride cocrystallized: solid-state geometry of Cl-H••p hydrogen bonding to the carbon-carbon triple bond
Dietrich Mootz and Axel Deeg
Journal of the American Chemical Society 1992, 114 (14), 5887-5888
The short length of this JACS communication belies the difficulty of this experimental work! This paper describes an X-ray structure of the addition complex between HCl and an alkyne, with the HCl perpendicular to the C-C p bond.
- The electrophilic addition to alkynes
Hilton M. Weiss
Journal of Chemical Education 1993, 70 (11), 873
This paper argues that vinyl cations are too unstable and therefore cannot be intermediates in electrophilic additions to alkynes. This is not entirely correct, as vinyl cations have been observed in superacid media under the right conditions.
- Bromide assisted addition of hydrogen bromide to alkynes and allenes
Hilton M. Weiss and Kim M. Touchette
J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans 2 1998:1523
The reaction of 4-octyne with TFA in CH2Cl2 containing 0.1-1.0 M bromide ion proceeds mainly via anti addition. The presence of bromide ion greatly accelerates the reaction as compared to reaction with TFA alone, indicating the involvement of Br– in the rate-determining step.
- Electron transmission study of the splitting of the p* molecular orbitals of angle-strained cyclic acetylenes: implications for the electrophilicity of alkynes
Lily Ng, Kenneth D. Jordan, Adolf Krebs, and Wolfgang Rueger
Journal of the American Chemical Society 1982, 104 (26), 7414-7416
Another possible explanation for the lower reactivity of alkynes relative to alkenes has to do with the availability of the unfilled orbital in the alkyne. It has been shown that a p* orbital of bent alkynes (e.g. cyclooctyne) has a lower energy than the p* orbital of alkenes, and it has been suggested that linear alkynes can achieve a bent structure in their transition states when reacting with an electrophile.
00 General Chemistry Review
01 Bonding, Structure, and Resonance
- How Do We Know Methane (CH4) Is Tetrahedral?
- Hybrid Orbitals and Hybridization
- How To Determine Hybridization: A Shortcut
- Orbital Hybridization And Bond Strengths
- Sigma bonds come in six varieties: Pi bonds come in one
- A Key Skill: How to Calculate Formal Charge
- Partial Charges Give Clues About Electron Flow
- The Four Intermolecular Forces and How They Affect Boiling Points
- 3 Trends That Affect Boiling Points
- How To Use Electronegativity To Determine Electron Density (and why NOT to trust formal charge)
- Introduction to Resonance
- How To Use Curved Arrows To Interchange Resonance Forms
- Evaluating Resonance Forms (1) - The Rule of Least Charges
- How To Find The Best Resonance Structure By Applying Electronegativity
- Evaluating Resonance Structures With Negative Charges
- Evaluating Resonance Structures With Positive Charge
- Exploring Resonance: Pi-Donation
- Exploring Resonance: Pi-acceptors
- In Summary: Evaluating Resonance Structures
- Drawing Resonance Structures: 3 Common Mistakes To Avoid
- How to apply electronegativity and resonance to understand reactivity
- Bond Hybridization Practice
- Structure and Bonding Practice Quizzes
- Resonance Structures Practice
02 Acid Base Reactions
- Introduction to Acid-Base Reactions
- Acid Base Reactions In Organic Chemistry
- The Stronger The Acid, The Weaker The Conjugate Base
- Walkthrough of Acid-Base Reactions (3) - Acidity Trends
- Five Key Factors That Influence Acidity
- Acid-Base Reactions: Introducing Ka and pKa
- How to Use a pKa Table
- The pKa Table Is Your Friend
- A Handy Rule of Thumb for Acid-Base Reactions
- Acid Base Reactions Are Fast
- pKa Values Span 60 Orders Of Magnitude
- How Protonation and Deprotonation Affect Reactivity
- Acid Base Practice Problems
03 Alkanes and Nomenclature
- Meet the (Most Important) Functional Groups
- Condensed Formulas: Deciphering What the Brackets Mean
- Hidden Hydrogens, Hidden Lone Pairs, Hidden Counterions
- Don't Be Futyl, Learn The Butyls
- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary In Organic Chemistry
- Branching, and Its Affect On Melting and Boiling Points
- The Many, Many Ways of Drawing Butane
- Wedge And Dash Convention For Tetrahedral Carbon
- Common Mistakes in Organic Chemistry: Pentavalent Carbon
- Table of Functional Group Priorities for Nomenclature
- Summary Sheet - Alkane Nomenclature
- Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature Demystified With A Simple Puzzle Piece Approach
- Boiling Point Quizzes
- Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Quizzes
04 Conformations and Cycloalkanes
- Staggered vs Eclipsed Conformations of Ethane
- Conformational Isomers of Propane
- Newman Projection of Butane (and Gauche Conformation)
- Introduction to Cycloalkanes (1)
- Geometric Isomers In Small Rings: Cis And Trans Cycloalkanes
- Calculation of Ring Strain In Cycloalkanes
- Cycloalkanes - Ring Strain In Cyclopropane And Cyclobutane
- Cyclohexane Conformations
- Cyclohexane Chair Conformation: An Aerial Tour
- How To Draw The Cyclohexane Chair Conformation
- The Cyclohexane Chair Flip
- The Cyclohexane Chair Flip - Energy Diagram
- Substituted Cyclohexanes - Axial vs Equatorial
- Ranking The Bulkiness Of Substituents On Cyclohexanes: "A-Values"
- The Ups and Downs of Cyclohexanes
- Cyclohexane Chair Conformation Stability: Which One Is Lower Energy?
- Fused Rings - Cis-Decalin and Trans-Decalin
- Naming Bicyclic Compounds - Fused, Bridged, and Spiro
- Bredt's Rule (And Summary of Cycloalkanes)
- Newman Projection Practice
- Cycloalkanes Practice Problems
05 A Primer On Organic Reactions
- The Most Important Question To Ask When Learning a New Reaction
- The 4 Major Classes of Reactions in Org 1
- Learning New Reactions: How Do The Electrons Move?
- How (and why) electrons flow
- The Third Most Important Question to Ask When Learning A New Reaction
- 7 Factors that stabilize negative charge in organic chemistry
- 7 Factors That Stabilize Positive Charge in Organic Chemistry
- Common Mistakes: Formal Charges Can Mislead
- Nucleophiles and Electrophiles
- Curved Arrows (for reactions)
- Curved Arrows (2): Initial Tails and Final Heads
- Nucleophilicity vs. Basicity
- The Three Classes of Nucleophiles
- What Makes A Good Nucleophile?
- What makes a good leaving group?
- 3 Factors That Stabilize Carbocations
- Equilibrium and Energy Relationships
- What's a Transition State?
- Hammond's Postulate
- Grossman's Rule
- Draw The Ugly Version First
- Learning Organic Chemistry Reactions: A Checklist (PDF)
- Introduction to Addition Reactions
- Introduction to Elimination Reactions
- Introduction to Free Radical Substitution Reactions
- Introduction to Oxidative Cleavage Reactions
06 Free Radical Reactions
- Bond Dissociation Energies = Homolytic Cleavage
- Free Radical Reactions
- 3 Factors That Stabilize Free Radicals
- What Factors Destabilize Free Radicals?
- Bond Strengths And Radical Stability
- Free Radical Initiation: Why Is "Light" Or "Heat" Required?
- Initiation, Propagation, Termination
- Monochlorination Products Of Propane, Pentane, And Other Alkanes
- Selectivity In Free Radical Reactions
- Selectivity in Free Radical Reactions: Bromination vs. Chlorination
- Halogenation At Tiffany's
- Allylic Bromination
- Bonus Topic: Allylic Rearrangements
- In Summary: Free Radicals
- Synthesis (2) - Reactions of Alkanes
- Free Radicals Practice Quizzes
07 Stereochemistry and Chirality
- Types of Isomers: Constitutional Isomers, Stereoisomers, Enantiomers, and Diastereomers
- How To Draw The Enantiomer Of A Chiral Molecule
- How To Draw A Bond Rotation
- Introduction to Assigning (R) and (S): The Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Rules
- Assigning Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (CIP) Priorities (2) - The Method of Dots
- Enantiomers vs Diastereomers vs The Same? Two Methods For Solving Problems
- Assigning R/S To Newman Projections (And Converting Newman To Line Diagrams)
- How To Determine R and S Configurations On A Fischer Projection
- The Meso Trap
- Optical Rotation, Optical Activity, and Specific Rotation
- Optical Purity and Enantiomeric Excess
- What's a Racemic Mixture?
- Chiral Allenes And Chiral Axes
- On Cats, Part 4: Enantiocats
- On Cats, Part 6: Stereocenters
- Stereochemistry Practice Problems and Quizzes
08 Substitution Reactions
- Introduction to Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
- Walkthrough of Substitution Reactions (1) - Introduction
- Two Types of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
- The SN2 Mechanism
- Why the SN2 Reaction Is Powerful
- The SN1 Mechanism
- The Conjugate Acid Is A Better Leaving Group
- Comparing the SN1 and SN2 Reactions
- Polar Protic? Polar Aprotic? Nonpolar? All About Solvents
- Steric Hindrance is Like a Fat Goalie
- Common Blind Spot: Intramolecular Reactions
- The Conjugate Base is Always a Stronger Nucleophile
- Substitution Practice - SN1
- Substitution Practice - SN2
09 Elimination Reactions
- Elimination Reactions (1): Introduction And The Key Pattern
- Elimination Reactions (2): The Zaitsev Rule
- Elimination Reactions Are Favored By Heat
- Two Elimination Reaction Patterns
- The E1 Reaction
- The E2 Mechanism
- E1 vs E2: Comparing the E1 and E2 Reactions
- Antiperiplanar Relationships: The E2 Reaction and Cyclohexane Rings
- Bulky Bases in Elimination Reactions
- Comparing the E1 vs SN1 Reactions
- Elimination (E1) Reactions With Rearrangements
- E1cB - Elimination (Unimolecular) Conjugate Base
- Elimination (E1) Practice Problems And Solutions
- Elimination (E2) Practice Problems and Solutions
11 SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision
- Identifying Where Substitution and Elimination Reactions Happen
- Deciding SN1/SN2/E1/E2 (1) - The Substrate
- Deciding SN1/SN2/E1/E2 (2) - The Nucleophile/Base
- SN1 vs E1 and SN2 vs E2 : The Temperature
- Deciding SN1/SN2/E1/E2 - The Solvent
- Wrapup: The Quick N' Dirty Guide To SN1/SN2/E1/E2
- Alkyl Halide Reaction Map And Summary
- SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Practice Problems
12 Alkene Reactions
- E and Z Notation For Alkenes (+ Cis/Trans)
- Alkene Stability
- Addition Reactions: Elimination's Opposite
- Selective vs. Specific
- Regioselectivity In Alkene Addition Reactions
- Stereoselectivity In Alkene Addition Reactions: Syn vs Anti Addition
- Hydrohalogenation of Alkenes and Markovnikov's Rule
- Hydration of Alkenes With Aqueous Acid
- Rearrangements in Alkene Addition Reactions
- Addition Pattern #1: The "Carbocation Pathway"
- Halogenation of Alkenes and Halohydrin Formation
- Oxymercuration Demercuration of Alkenes
- Alkene Addition Pattern #2: The "Three-Membered Ring" Pathway
- Hydroboration Oxidation of Alkenes
- m-CPBA (meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid)
- OsO4 (Osmium Tetroxide) for Dihydroxylation of Alkenes
- Palladium on Carbon (Pd/C) for Catalytic Hydrogenation
- Cyclopropanation of Alkenes
- Alkene Addition Pattern #3: The "Concerted" Pathway
- A Fourth Alkene Addition Pattern - Free Radical Addition
- Alkene Reactions: Ozonolysis
- Summary: Three Key Families Of Alkene Reaction Mechanisms
- Synthesis (4) - Alkene Reaction Map, Including Alkyl Halide Reactions
- Alkene Reactions Practice Problems
13 Alkyne Reactions
- Acetylides from Alkynes, And Substitution Reactions of Acetylides
- Partial Reduction of Alkynes With Lindlar's Catalyst or Na/NH3 To Obtain Cis or Trans Alkenes
- Hydroboration and Oxymercuration of Alkynes
- Alkyne Reaction Patterns - Hydrohalogenation - Carbocation Pathway
- Alkyne Halogenation: Bromination, Chlorination, and Iodination of Alkynes
- Alkyne Reactions - The "Concerted" Pathway
- Alkenes To Alkynes Via Halogenation And Elimination Reactions
- Alkynes Are A Blank Canvas
- Synthesis (5) - Reactions of Alkynes
- Alkyne Reactions Practice Problems With Answers
14 Alcohols, Epoxides and Ethers
- Alcohols - Nomenclature and Properties
- Alcohols Can Act As Acids Or Bases (And Why It Matters)
- Alcohols - Acidity and Basicity
- The Williamson Ether Synthesis
- Ethers From Alkenes, Tertiary Alkyl Halides and Alkoxymercuration
- Alcohols To Ethers via Acid Catalysis
- Cleavage Of Ethers With Acid
- Epoxides - The Outlier Of The Ether Family
- Opening of Epoxides With Acid
- Epoxide Ring Opening With Base
- Making Alkyl Halides From Alcohols
- Tosylates And Mesylates
- PBr3 and SOCl2
- Elimination Reactions of Alcohols
- Elimination of Alcohols To Alkenes With POCl3
- Alcohol Oxidation: "Strong" and "Weak" Oxidants
- Demystifying The Mechanisms of Alcohol Oxidations
- Protecting Groups For Alcohols
- Thiols And Thioethers
- Calculating the oxidation state of a carbon
- Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
- Oxidation Ladders
- SOCl2 Mechanism For Alcohols To Alkyl Halides: SN2 versus SNi
- Alcohol Reactions Roadmap (PDF)
- Alcohol Reaction Practice Problems
- Epoxide Reaction Quizzes
- Oxidation and Reduction Practice Quizzes
- What's An Organometallic?
- Formation of Grignard and Organolithium Reagents
- Organometallics Are Strong Bases
- Reactions of Grignard Reagents
- Protecting Groups In Grignard Reactions
- Synthesis Problems Involving Grignard Reagents
- Grignard Reactions And Synthesis (2)
- Organocuprates (Gilman Reagents): How They're Made
- Gilman Reagents (Organocuprates): What They're Used For
- The Heck, Suzuki, and Olefin Metathesis Reactions (And Why They Don't Belong In Most Introductory Organic Chemistry Courses)
- Reaction Map: Reactions of Organometallics
- Grignard Practice Problems
- Degrees of Unsaturation (or IHD, Index of Hydrogen Deficiency)
- Conjugation And Color (+ How Bleach Works)
- Introduction To UV-Vis Spectroscopy
- UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Absorbance of Carbonyls
- UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Practice Questions
- Bond Vibrations, Infrared Spectroscopy, and the "Ball and Spring" Model
- Infrared Spectroscopy: A Quick Primer On Interpreting Spectra
- IR Spectroscopy: 4 Practice Problems
- 1H NMR: How Many Signals?
- Homotopic, Enantiotopic, Diastereotopic
- Diastereotopic Protons in 1H NMR Spectroscopy: Examples
- C13 NMR - How Many Signals
- Liquid Gold: Pheromones In Doe Urine
- Natural Product Isolation (1) - Extraction
- Natural Product Isolation (2) - Purification Techniques, An Overview
- Structure Determination Case Study: Deer Tarsal Gland Pheromone
17 Dienes and MO Theory
- What To Expect In Organic Chemistry 2
- Are these molecules conjugated?
- Conjugation And Resonance In Organic Chemistry
- Bonding And Antibonding Pi Orbitals
- Molecular Orbitals of The Allyl Cation, Allyl Radical, and Allyl Anion
- Pi Molecular Orbitals of Butadiene
- Reactions of Dienes: 1,2 and 1,4 Addition
- Thermodynamic and Kinetic Products
- More On 1,2 and 1,4 Additions To Dienes
- s-cis and s-trans
- The Diels-Alder Reaction
- Cyclic Dienes and Dienophiles in the Diels-Alder Reaction
- Stereochemistry of the Diels-Alder Reaction
- Exo vs Endo Products In The Diels Alder: How To Tell Them Apart
- HOMO and LUMO In the Diels Alder Reaction
- Why Are Endo vs Exo Products Favored in the Diels-Alder Reaction?
- Diels-Alder Reaction: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Control
- The Retro Diels-Alder Reaction
- The Intramolecular Diels Alder Reaction
- Regiochemistry In The Diels-Alder Reaction
- The Cope and Claisen Rearrangements
- Electrocyclic Reactions
- Electrocyclic Ring Opening And Closure (2) - Six (or Eight) Pi Electrons
- Diels Alder Practice Problems
- Molecular Orbital Theory Practice
- Introduction To Aromaticity
- Rules For Aromaticity
- Huckel's Rule: What Does 4n+2 Mean?
- Aromatic, Non-Aromatic, or Antiaromatic? Some Practice Problems
- Antiaromatic Compounds and Antiaromaticity
- The Pi Molecular Orbitals of Benzene
- The Pi Molecular Orbitals of Cyclobutadiene
- Frost Circles
- Aromaticity Practice Quizzes
19 Reactions of Aromatic Molecules
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Introduction
- Activating and Deactivating Groups In Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution - The Mechanism
- Ortho-, Para- and Meta- Directors in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
- Understanding Ortho, Para, and Meta Directors
- Why are halogens ortho- para- directors?
- Disubstituted Benzenes: The Strongest Electron-Donor "Wins"
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (1) - Halogenation of Benzene
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (2) - Nitration and Sulfonation
- EAS Reactions (3) - Friedel-Crafts Acylation and Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
- Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts Reactions
- Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (NAS)
- Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (2) - The Benzyne Mechanism
- Reactions on the "Benzylic" Carbon: Bromination And Oxidation
- The Wolff-Kishner, Clemmensen, And Other Carbonyl Reductions
- More Reactions on the Aromatic Sidechain: Reduction of Nitro Groups and the Baeyer Villiger
- Aromatic Synthesis (1) - "Order Of Operations"
- Synthesis of Benzene Derivatives (2) - Polarity Reversal
- Aromatic Synthesis (3) - Sulfonyl Blocking Groups
- Birch Reduction
- Synthesis (7): Reaction Map of Benzene and Related Aromatic Compounds
- Aromatic Reactions and Synthesis Practice
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Practice Problems
20 Aldehydes and Ketones
- What's The Alpha Carbon In Carbonyl Compounds?
- Nucleophilic Addition To Carbonyls
- Aldehydes and Ketones: 14 Reactions With The Same Mechanism
- Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4) Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
- Grignard Reagents For Addition To Aldehydes and Ketones
- Wittig Reaction
- Hydrates, Hemiacetals, and Acetals
- Imines - Properties, Formation, Reactions, and Mechanisms
- All About Enamines
- Breaking Down Carbonyl Reaction Mechanisms: Reactions of Anionic Nucleophiles (Part 2)
- Aldehydes Ketones Reaction Practice
21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
- Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution (With Negatively Charged Nucleophiles)
- Addition-Elimination Mechanisms With Neutral Nucleophiles (Including Acid Catalysis)
- Basic Hydrolysis of Esters - Saponification
- Proton Transfer
- Fischer Esterification - Carboxylic Acid to Ester Under Acidic Conditions
- Lithium Aluminum Hydride (LiAlH4) For Reduction of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
- LiAlH[Ot-Bu]3 For The Reduction of Acid Halides To Aldehydes
- Di-isobutyl Aluminum Hydride (DIBAL) For The Partial Reduction of Esters and Nitriles
- Amide Hydrolysis
- Thionyl Chloride (SOCl2)
- Diazomethane (CH2N2)
- Carbonyl Chemistry: Learn Six Mechanisms For the Price Of One
- Making Music With Mechanisms (PADPED)
- Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Practice Questions
22 Enols and Enolates
- Keto-Enol Tautomerism
- Enolates - Formation, Stability, and Simple Reactions
- Kinetic Versus Thermodynamic Enolates
- Aldol Addition and Condensation Reactions
- Reactions of Enols - Acid-Catalyzed Aldol, Halogenation, and Mannich Reactions
- Claisen Condensation and Dieckmann Condensation
- The Malonic Ester and Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis
- The Michael Addition Reaction and Conjugate Addition
- The Robinson Annulation
- Haloform Reaction
- The Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky Reaction
- Enols and Enolates Practice Quizzes
- The Amide Functional Group: Properties, Synthesis, and Nomenclature
- Basicity of Amines And pKaH
- 5 Key Basicity Trends of Amines
- The Mesomeric Effect And Aromatic Amines
- Nucleophilicity of Amines
- Alkylation of Amines (Sucks!)
- Reductive Amination
- The Gabriel Synthesis
- Some Reactions of Azides
- The Hofmann Elimination
- The Hofmann and Curtius Rearrangements
- The Cope Elimination
- Protecting Groups for Amines - Carbamates
- The Strecker Synthesis of Amino Acids
- Introduction to Peptide Synthesis
- Reactions of Diazonium Salts: Sandmeyer and Related Reactions
- Amine Practice Questions
- D and L Notation For Sugars
- Pyranoses and Furanoses: Ring-Chain Tautomerism In Sugars
- What is Mutarotation?
- Reducing Sugars
- The Big Damn Post Of Carbohydrate-Related Chemistry Definitions
- The Haworth Projection
- Converting a Fischer Projection To A Haworth (And Vice Versa)
- Reactions of Sugars: Glycosylation and Protection
- The Ruff Degradation and Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis
- Isoelectric Points of Amino Acids (and How To Calculate Them)
- Carbohydrates Practice
- Amino Acid Quizzes
25 Fun and Miscellaneous
- Organic Chemistry GIFS - Resonance Forms
- Organic Chemistry and the New MCAT
- A Gallery of Some Interesting Molecules From Nature
- The Organic Chemistry Behind "The Pill"
- Maybe they should call them, "Formal Wins" ?
- Intramolecular Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers
- Planning Organic Synthesis With "Reaction Maps"
- Organic Chemistry Is Shit
- The 8 Types of Arrows In Organic Chemistry, Explained
- The Most Annoying Exceptions in Org 1 (Part 1)
- The Most Annoying Exceptions in Org 1 (Part 2)
- Reproducibility In Organic Chemistry
- Screw Organic Chemistry, I'm Just Going To Write About Cats
- On Cats, Part 1: Conformations and Configurations
- On Cats, Part 2: Cat Line Diagrams
- The Marriage May Be Bad, But the Divorce Still Costs Money
- Why Do Organic Chemists Use Kilocalories?
- What Holds The Nucleus Together?
- 9 Nomenclature Conventions To Know
- How Reactions Are Like Music