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Organic Chemistry and the New MCAT
Last updated: July 7th, 2023 |
Organic Chemistry and the MCAT, by Leah Fisch
Note from James: This is a guest post by Leah Fisch of Leah4Sci.com , an online resource for learning organic chemistry, MCAT preparation, and other science topics . This is a comprehensive Leah wrote on organic chemistry and the MCAT. You might want to bookmark this page for future reference, and be sure to visit Leah’s Youtube Channel for more videos on nomenclature as well as other organic chemistry topics. Leah also tutors MCAT and organic chemistry. Her tutoring page is here.
Finally: If you’re planning on taking the MCAT soon, you should download Leah’s free 6-Weeks To MCAT Prep Guide.
Exactly how much organic chemistry is on the MCAT?
As a premed student, organic chemistry is likely one of the most difficult sciences you’ve encountered. Why take such a difficult course? Because you need it for the MCAT!
However, in 2015, when the MCAT exam changed, the amount of organic chemistry appeared to decrease, making students wonder just how much time they should dedicate to the topic.
Implication: “is it even worth it?”
The answer is tricky. So instead of telling you how much to study… let’s break it down.
The MCAT has a total of 4 sections covering 8 disciplines:
- General Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Verbal Reasoning (CARS)
Organic chemistry is just ONE of the eight subjects you have to study.
But it gets better: orgo shows up in just the first and third section of the 7.5 hour exam.
Section 1: Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems is just 15% organic chemistry with the other 85% comprised of general chemistry, biochemistry, physics and biology.
Section 3: Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems is just 5% organic chemistry with the other 95% comprised of general chemistry, biochemistry and biology.
After a quick calculation organic chemistry appears to be just 5% of the entire exam!
But… don’t let the 5% estimate give you a false sense of security.
Biology is the most highly tested topic, but when you run the math it makes up just 18.75% of the MCAT.
The math is somewhat misleading.
First of all, when medical schools evaluate your application, they look at more than just your total score. They look to see how you scored in each section, making organic chemistry suddenly more valuable. Consequently, even though it’s a small part of just two sections on the MCAT, skipping orgo study will tank your score in these sections, making you look bad.
The most important thing to recognize is just HOW organic chemistry is tested.
Fifteen percent of the first section doesn’t mean that 8.85 of 59 questions will be isolated organic chemistry questions.
Instead, the new MCAT is an integrated exam where you’ll be faced with research- and experiment-style passages combining multiple disciplines into a single passage and question:
- While you may not be asked for an R/S question directly, you may be asked about the optical purity of a newly synthesized experimental drug.
- You may not be tested on aldol condensations directly, but you may face a question asking you how glycolysis will be impacted by a single amino acid mutation in the active site of aldolase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes an aldol-style reaction in glycolysis.
Understanding Concepts is MUCH MORE Important than Memorization!
Your orgo professor likely asked FOR reactions, mechanisms, products, and lots of pushing arrows.
The MCAT is all multiple choice questions and applied concepts.
As you review reactions, don’t worry about memorizing mechanisms.
Instead, make sure to ask yourself these questions every step of the way.
- What is the purpose of this reaction?
- What is the purpose of this mechanism?
- What do I absolutely have to recognize about the reactant and reagent to help me understand the product? Focus on getting the logic, understanding the patterns and understanding what’s going on.
For example, Grignards are VERY reactive. They’ll attack all sorts of carbonyls. Don’t worry about which specific pair of electrons attack. Instead make sure you recognize the resulting alcohol product.
Why can’t you dissolve a Grignard in water or ethanol? Why should you complete the reaction with an acid workup AFTER the Grignard reacted? What happens if you mix the aqueous acid with the Grignard at the start of the reaction?
And most importantly, can you recognize the specific functional groups of this reaction when presented in the context of a biological or chemical research experiment?
As an MCAT tutor I’ve been interviewing students after each exam to understand the true nature of questions that arise on the exam.
This is where it gets interesting.
Once again, looking at just 15% orgo on the first section I notice an AVERAGE of 15% orgo questions. That is an average over the course of many exams combined.
One exam may have just two to three orgo questions about functional groups, SN1 reactions or IR spec, while another exam will have as many as 15 organic chemistry questions.
Another thing I’ve noticed is that while you may have learned a certain topic in your organic chemistry course, the MCAT will find a way to test it under the disguise of biology or biochemistry. This is especially true with amino acid characteristics, separation techniques and of course chirality.
This makes the value of your organic chemistry study much more significant, as orgo success will be success in the other subjects as well.
What does this mean for you as a premed student?
“What about high yield topics?”
Students looking for shortcuts often want to know which high-yield orgo topics to study.
In other words: “if I just have time to cover a bit of orgo, which topics should I focus on?”
This is a trick question.
I’ve heard from MCAT testers that any given MCAT has covered multiple passages on a single “low-yield” topic. Students who’ve studied everything will get these correct. Students who followed their MCAT book’s advice on high-yield topics ONLY wound up missing out on quite a few simple (low yield) questions.
For example, one of the 2016 MCATs had no less than FIVE passages related to lab separation techniques. If you thought, “sure I’ll cover electrophoresis quickly” and didn’t study it well enough, you would have missed out on several questions.
With all of this in mind, make sure you absolutely master the following starting with all of the beginner orgo topics typically covered in first semester organic chemistry. Then focus on understanding the patterns and functional groups of reactions covered in orgo 2.
Why? Because organic chemistry 2 is simply orgo 1 on steroids building on these very foundations.
Here’s my recommendation for what to cover when studying organic chemistry for the MCAT
The following is not an exhaustive list but a very good start on what to focus on:
1. Start With The Basics
The AAMC considers some of these “general chemistry” topics but you likely covered this in organic chemistry 1.
- Lewis structure and bonding
- Hybridization, bond angles and electronic/molecular geometry [video]
- Structural formulas including skeletal structure (bond line notation) [video]
Let’s face it, while you won’t be tested the nomenclature itself, you better know exactly what is meant by isopropyl, tert-butyl and more.
2. Isomers and Stereochemistry
- structural isomers (constitutional isomers) [video]
- conformational isomers including Newman and Chair
- Chirality including R/S, D/L, enantiomers, diastereomers, meso compounds and more
- cis/trans and E/Z
- Acids & Bases: The non-math (non gen chem) aspect (such as acidity trends)
- SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Reactions and how to differentiate between them
3. The following topics are sometimes covered in Org 1 or Org 2. Learn these well but don’t go too crazy!
- Alcohols & Phenols: Reactions, protecting groups, leaving groups
- Aromaticity: Concept more than reactions including heterocyclic aromatic compounds
- Aldehyde and Ketone: Direct Reactions, Reactions at the Alpha Carbon (enolates), Keto-Enol Tautomerism (KET) and more
- Amine reactions especially as they relate to amino acids
- Carboxylic Acids: Formation and Reactions
- Carboxylic Acid Derivatives, especially esters in biological molecules
4. The following topics are often introduced in orgo but covered in biochemistry
- Carbohydrates: orgo focus on Fischer Projections, stereochemistry and some reactions
- Amino Acids: orgo focus on Fischer Projections, stereochemistry and some reactions
5. And let’s not forget Lab Techniques
If the MCAT is all about experiments and research, make sure you know and truly understand the following analytical methods including simple graph interpretation:
6. What about all those crazy orgo 2 reactions not listed above?
Don’t skip them completely just in case.
Don’t go nuts as you review but simply look at your book and try to understand what’s going on.
For example Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis, Michael Addition and more. These are SPECIFIC reactions that incorporate bits and pieces of the reactions listed above.
So while you’re not required to know this mechanism, acetoacetic ester synthesis is really just a combination of the following reactions:
- Acid base
- Keto Enol Tautomerization
I challenge you to go study the steps and verify that the above is true.
The MCAT EXPECTS you to recognize that this is the case, but in reality most students are under too much pressure to make these connections.
To be safe, spend some time each day watching a short advanced reaction mechanism tutorial video or reviewing a single reaction in your orgo book. Let the book/tutorial make the connections for you so that your brain power is reserved for figuring out what the heck they are asking in the passage/question.
Let’s take this to the extreme.
Nowhere on the AAMC outline do you see the mention of alkenes.
Does this mean you can skip it? Not quite!
Let’s read between the lines:
- E1/E2 including alcohol dehydration = alkenes.
- What if you reverse the reaction? That’s an alkene addition reaction!
- What if you have to synthesize an alcohol? Alkenes make good starting points.
- What about Cis/Trans E/Z isomers as the product of a reaction?
Once again, alkene reactions.
And yes, MCAT testers HAVE confirmed seeing all of this on their MCAT.
What does this mean for you as a premed student?
Do NOT discount organic chemistry just because there’s so much else to study.
Instead I recommend breaking up your study schedule so that you devote time to cover a little bit of EACH MCAT topic on a weekly basis including organic chemistry.
So how do you structure your schedule in a manner that allows you to cover ALL of the content for the MCAT and work in practice questions and full lengths, without forgetting or burning out?
Thanks for demystifying the recent changes to the MCAT Leah – and best wishes to everyone for a successful test! – J
00 General Chemistry Review
01 Bonding, Structure, and Resonance
- How Do We Know Methane (CH4) Is Tetrahedral?
- Hybrid Orbitals and Hybridization
- How To Determine Hybridization: A Shortcut
- Orbital Hybridization And Bond Strengths
- Sigma bonds come in six varieties: Pi bonds come in one
- A Key Skill: How to Calculate Formal Charge
- Partial Charges Give Clues About Electron Flow
- The Four Intermolecular Forces and How They Affect Boiling Points
- 3 Trends That Affect Boiling Points
- How To Use Electronegativity To Determine Electron Density (and why NOT to trust formal charge)
- Introduction to Resonance
- How To Use Curved Arrows To Interchange Resonance Forms
- Evaluating Resonance Forms (1) - The Rule of Least Charges
- How To Find The Best Resonance Structure By Applying Electronegativity
- Evaluating Resonance Structures With Negative Charges
- Evaluating Resonance Structures With Positive Charge
- Exploring Resonance: Pi-Donation
- Exploring Resonance: Pi-acceptors
- In Summary: Evaluating Resonance Structures
- Drawing Resonance Structures: 3 Common Mistakes To Avoid
- How to apply electronegativity and resonance to understand reactivity
- Bond Hybridization Practice
- Structure and Bonding Practice Quizzes
- Resonance Structures Practice
02 Acid Base Reactions
- Introduction to Acid-Base Reactions
- Acid Base Reactions In Organic Chemistry
- The Stronger The Acid, The Weaker The Conjugate Base
- Walkthrough of Acid-Base Reactions (3) - Acidity Trends
- Five Key Factors That Influence Acidity
- Acid-Base Reactions: Introducing Ka and pKa
- How to Use a pKa Table
- The pKa Table Is Your Friend
- A Handy Rule of Thumb for Acid-Base Reactions
- Acid Base Reactions Are Fast
- pKa Values Span 60 Orders Of Magnitude
- How Protonation and Deprotonation Affect Reactivity
- Acid Base Practice Problems
03 Alkanes and Nomenclature
- Meet the (Most Important) Functional Groups
- Condensed Formulas: Deciphering What the Brackets Mean
- Hidden Hydrogens, Hidden Lone Pairs, Hidden Counterions
- Don't Be Futyl, Learn The Butyls
- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary In Organic Chemistry
- Branching, and Its Affect On Melting and Boiling Points
- The Many, Many Ways of Drawing Butane
- Wedge And Dash Convention For Tetrahedral Carbon
- Common Mistakes in Organic Chemistry: Pentavalent Carbon
- Table of Functional Group Priorities for Nomenclature
- Summary Sheet - Alkane Nomenclature
- Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature Demystified With A Simple Puzzle Piece Approach
- Boiling Point Quizzes
- Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Quizzes
04 Conformations and Cycloalkanes
- Staggered vs Eclipsed Conformations of Ethane
- Conformational Isomers of Propane
- Newman Projection of Butane (and Gauche Conformation)
- Introduction to Cycloalkanes (1)
- Geometric Isomers In Small Rings: Cis And Trans Cycloalkanes
- Calculation of Ring Strain In Cycloalkanes
- Cycloalkanes - Ring Strain In Cyclopropane And Cyclobutane
- Cyclohexane Conformations
- Cyclohexane Chair Conformation: An Aerial Tour
- How To Draw The Cyclohexane Chair Conformation
- The Cyclohexane Chair Flip
- The Cyclohexane Chair Flip - Energy Diagram
- Substituted Cyclohexanes - Axial vs Equatorial
- Ranking The Bulkiness Of Substituents On Cyclohexanes: "A-Values"
- The Ups and Downs of Cyclohexanes
- Cyclohexane Chair Conformation Stability: Which One Is Lower Energy?
- Fused Rings - Cis-Decalin and Trans-Decalin
- Naming Bicyclic Compounds - Fused, Bridged, and Spiro
- Bredt's Rule (And Summary of Cycloalkanes)
- Newman Projection Practice
- Cycloalkanes Practice Problems
05 A Primer On Organic Reactions
- The Most Important Question To Ask When Learning a New Reaction
- The 4 Major Classes of Reactions in Org 1
- Learning New Reactions: How Do The Electrons Move?
- How (and why) electrons flow
- The Third Most Important Question to Ask When Learning A New Reaction
- 7 Factors that stabilize negative charge in organic chemistry
- 7 Factors That Stabilize Positive Charge in Organic Chemistry
- Common Mistakes: Formal Charges Can Mislead
- Nucleophiles and Electrophiles
- Curved Arrows (for reactions)
- Curved Arrows (2): Initial Tails and Final Heads
- Nucleophilicity vs. Basicity
- The Three Classes of Nucleophiles
- What Makes A Good Nucleophile?
- What makes a good leaving group?
- 3 Factors That Stabilize Carbocations
- Equilibrium and Energy Relationships
- What's a Transition State?
- Hammond's Postulate
- Grossman's Rule
- Draw The Ugly Version First
- Learning Organic Chemistry Reactions: A Checklist (PDF)
- Introduction to Addition Reactions
- Introduction to Elimination Reactions
- Introduction to Free Radical Substitution Reactions
- Introduction to Oxidative Cleavage Reactions
06 Free Radical Reactions
- Bond Dissociation Energies = Homolytic Cleavage
- Free Radical Reactions
- 3 Factors That Stabilize Free Radicals
- What Factors Destabilize Free Radicals?
- Bond Strengths And Radical Stability
- Free Radical Initiation: Why Is "Light" Or "Heat" Required?
- Initiation, Propagation, Termination
- Monochlorination Products Of Propane, Pentane, And Other Alkanes
- Selectivity In Free Radical Reactions
- Selectivity in Free Radical Reactions: Bromination vs. Chlorination
- Halogenation At Tiffany's
- Allylic Bromination
- Bonus Topic: Allylic Rearrangements
- In Summary: Free Radicals
- Synthesis (2) - Reactions of Alkanes
- Free Radicals Practice Quizzes
07 Stereochemistry and Chirality
- Types of Isomers: Constitutional Isomers, Stereoisomers, Enantiomers, and Diastereomers
- How To Draw The Enantiomer Of A Chiral Molecule
- How To Draw A Bond Rotation
- Introduction to Assigning (R) and (S): The Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Rules
- Assigning Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (CIP) Priorities (2) - The Method of Dots
- Enantiomers vs Diastereomers vs The Same? Two Methods For Solving Problems
- Assigning R/S To Newman Projections (And Converting Newman To Line Diagrams)
- How To Determine R and S Configurations On A Fischer Projection
- The Meso Trap
- Optical Rotation, Optical Activity, and Specific Rotation
- Optical Purity and Enantiomeric Excess
- What's a Racemic Mixture?
- Chiral Allenes And Chiral Axes
- On Cats, Part 4: Enantiocats
- On Cats, Part 6: Stereocenters
- Stereochemistry Practice Problems and Quizzes
08 Substitution Reactions
- Introduction to Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
- Walkthrough of Substitution Reactions (1) - Introduction
- Two Types of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions
- The SN2 Mechanism
- Why the SN2 Reaction Is Powerful
- The SN1 Mechanism
- The Conjugate Acid Is A Better Leaving Group
- Comparing the SN1 and SN2 Reactions
- Polar Protic? Polar Aprotic? Nonpolar? All About Solvents
- Steric Hindrance is Like a Fat Goalie
- Common Blind Spot: Intramolecular Reactions
- The Conjugate Base is Always a Stronger Nucleophile
- Substitution Practice - SN1
- Substitution Practice - SN2
09 Elimination Reactions
- Elimination Reactions (1): Introduction And The Key Pattern
- Elimination Reactions (2): The Zaitsev Rule
- Elimination Reactions Are Favored By Heat
- Two Elimination Reaction Patterns
- The E1 Reaction
- The E2 Mechanism
- E1 vs E2: Comparing the E1 and E2 Reactions
- Antiperiplanar Relationships: The E2 Reaction and Cyclohexane Rings
- Bulky Bases in Elimination Reactions
- Comparing the E1 vs SN1 Reactions
- Elimination (E1) Reactions With Rearrangements
- E1cB - Elimination (Unimolecular) Conjugate Base
- Elimination (E1) Practice Problems And Solutions
- Elimination (E2) Practice Problems and Solutions
11 SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision
- Identifying Where Substitution and Elimination Reactions Happen
- Deciding SN1/SN2/E1/E2 (1) - The Substrate
- Deciding SN1/SN2/E1/E2 (2) - The Nucleophile/Base
- Deciding SN1/SN2/E1/E2 (3) - The Solvent
- Deciding SN1/SN2/E1/E2 (4) - The Temperature
- Wrapup: The Quick N' Dirty Guide To SN1/SN2/E1/E2
- Alkyl Halide Reaction Map And Summary
- SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Practice Problems
12 Alkene Reactions
- E and Z Notation For Alkenes (+ Cis/Trans)
- Alkene Stability
- Addition Reactions: Elimination's Opposite
- Selective vs. Specific
- Regioselectivity In Alkene Addition Reactions
- Stereoselectivity In Alkene Addition Reactions: Syn vs Anti Addition
- Hydrohalogenation of Alkenes and Markovnikov's Rule
- Hydration of Alkenes With Aqueous Acid
- Rearrangements in Alkene Addition Reactions
- Addition Pattern #1: The "Carbocation Pathway"
- Halogenation of Alkenes and Halohydrin Formation
- Oxymercuration Demercuration of Alkenes
- Alkene Addition Pattern #2: The "Three-Membered Ring" Pathway
- Hydroboration Oxidation of Alkenes
- m-CPBA (meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid)
- OsO4 (Osmium Tetroxide) for Dihydroxylation of Alkenes
- Palladium on Carbon (Pd/C) for Catalytic Hydrogenation
- Cyclopropanation of Alkenes
- Alkene Addition Pattern #3: The "Concerted" Pathway
- A Fourth Alkene Addition Pattern - Free Radical Addition
- Alkene Reactions: Ozonolysis
- Summary: Three Key Families Of Alkene Reaction Mechanisms
- Synthesis (4) - Alkene Reaction Map, Including Alkyl Halide Reactions
- Alkene Reactions Practice Problems
13 Alkyne Reactions
- Acetylides from Alkynes, And Substitution Reactions of Acetylides
- Partial Reduction of Alkynes With Lindlar's Catalyst or Na/NH3 To Obtain Cis or Trans Alkenes
- Hydroboration and Oxymercuration of Alkynes
- Alkyne Reaction Patterns - Hydrohalogenation - Carbocation Pathway
- Alkyne Halogenation: Bromination, Chlorination, and Iodination of Alkynes
- Alkyne Reactions - The "Concerted" Pathway
- Alkenes To Alkynes Via Halogenation And Elimination Reactions
- Alkynes Are A Blank Canvas
- Synthesis (5) - Reactions of Alkynes
- Alkyne Reactions Practice Problems With Answers
14 Alcohols, Epoxides and Ethers
- Alcohols - Nomenclature and Properties
- Alcohols Can Act As Acids Or Bases (And Why It Matters)
- Alcohols - Acidity and Basicity
- The Williamson Ether Synthesis
- Ethers From Alkenes, Tertiary Alkyl Halides and Alkoxymercuration
- Alcohols To Ethers via Acid Catalysis
- Cleavage Of Ethers With Acid
- Epoxides - The Outlier Of The Ether Family
- Opening of Epoxides With Acid
- Epoxide Ring Opening With Base
- Making Alkyl Halides From Alcohols
- Tosylates And Mesylates
- PBr3 and SOCl2
- Elimination Reactions of Alcohols
- Elimination of Alcohols To Alkenes With POCl3
- Alcohol Oxidation: "Strong" and "Weak" Oxidants
- Demystifying The Mechanisms of Alcohol Oxidations
- Protecting Groups For Alcohols
- Thiols And Thioethers
- Calculating the oxidation state of a carbon
- Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry
- Oxidation Ladders
- SOCl2 Mechanism For Alcohols To Alkyl Halides: SN2 versus SNi
- Alcohol Reactions Roadmap (PDF)
- Alcohol Reaction Practice Problems
- Epoxide Reaction Quizzes
- Oxidation and Reduction Practice Quizzes
- What's An Organometallic?
- Formation of Grignard and Organolithium Reagents
- Organometallics Are Strong Bases
- Reactions of Grignard Reagents
- Protecting Groups In Grignard Reactions
- Synthesis Problems Involving Grignard Reagents
- Grignard Reactions And Synthesis (2)
- Organocuprates (Gilman Reagents): How They're Made
- Gilman Reagents (Organocuprates): What They're Used For
- The Heck, Suzuki, and Olefin Metathesis Reactions (And Why They Don't Belong In Most Introductory Organic Chemistry Courses)
- Reaction Map: Reactions of Organometallics
- Grignard Practice Problems
- Degrees of Unsaturation (or IHD, Index of Hydrogen Deficiency)
- Conjugation And Color (+ How Bleach Works)
- Introduction To UV-Vis Spectroscopy
- UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Absorbance of Carbonyls
- UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Practice Questions
- Bond Vibrations, Infrared Spectroscopy, and the "Ball and Spring" Model
- Infrared Spectroscopy: A Quick Primer On Interpreting Spectra
- IR Spectroscopy: 4 Practice Problems
- 1H NMR: How Many Signals?
- Homotopic, Enantiotopic, Diastereotopic
- Diastereotopic Protons in 1H NMR Spectroscopy: Examples
- C13 NMR - How Many Signals
- Liquid Gold: Pheromones In Doe Urine
- Natural Product Isolation (1) - Extraction
- Natural Product Isolation (2) - Purification Techniques, An Overview
- Structure Determination Case Study: Deer Tarsal Gland Pheromone
17 Dienes and MO Theory
- What To Expect In Organic Chemistry 2
- Are these molecules conjugated?
- Conjugation And Resonance In Organic Chemistry
- Bonding And Antibonding Pi Orbitals
- Molecular Orbitals of The Allyl Cation, Allyl Radical, and Allyl Anion
- Pi Molecular Orbitals of Butadiene
- Reactions of Dienes: 1,2 and 1,4 Addition
- Thermodynamic and Kinetic Products
- More On 1,2 and 1,4 Additions To Dienes
- s-cis and s-trans
- The Diels-Alder Reaction
- Cyclic Dienes and Dienophiles in the Diels-Alder Reaction
- Stereochemistry of the Diels-Alder Reaction
- Exo vs Endo Products In The Diels Alder: How To Tell Them Apart
- HOMO and LUMO In the Diels Alder Reaction
- Why Are Endo vs Exo Products Favored in the Diels-Alder Reaction?
- Diels-Alder Reaction: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Control
- The Retro Diels-Alder Reaction
- The Intramolecular Diels Alder Reaction
- Regiochemistry In The Diels-Alder Reaction
- The Cope and Claisen Rearrangements
- Electrocyclic Reactions
- Electrocyclic Ring Opening And Closure (2) - Six (or Eight) Pi Electrons
- Diels Alder Practice Problems
- Molecular Orbital Theory Practice
- Introduction To Aromaticity
- Rules For Aromaticity
- Huckel's Rule: What Does 4n+2 Mean?
- Aromatic, Non-Aromatic, or Antiaromatic? Some Practice Problems
- Antiaromatic Compounds and Antiaromaticity
- The Pi Molecular Orbitals of Benzene
- The Pi Molecular Orbitals of Cyclobutadiene
- Frost Circles
- Aromaticity Practice Quizzes
19 Reactions of Aromatic Molecules
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Introduction
- Activating and Deactivating Groups In Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution - The Mechanism
- Ortho-, Para- and Meta- Directors in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
- Understanding Ortho, Para, and Meta Directors
- Why are halogens ortho- para- directors?
- Disubstituted Benzenes: The Strongest Electron-Donor "Wins"
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (1) - Halogenation of Benzene
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (2) - Nitration and Sulfonation
- EAS Reactions (3) - Friedel-Crafts Acylation and Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
- Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts Reactions
- Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (NAS)
- Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (2) - The Benzyne Mechanism
- Reactions on the "Benzylic" Carbon: Bromination And Oxidation
- The Wolff-Kishner, Clemmensen, And Other Carbonyl Reductions
- More Reactions on the Aromatic Sidechain: Reduction of Nitro Groups and the Baeyer Villiger
- Aromatic Synthesis (1) - "Order Of Operations"
- Synthesis of Benzene Derivatives (2) - Polarity Reversal
- Aromatic Synthesis (3) - Sulfonyl Blocking Groups
- Birch Reduction
- Synthesis (7): Reaction Map of Benzene and Related Aromatic Compounds
- Aromatic Reactions and Synthesis Practice
- Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Practice Problems
20 Aldehydes and Ketones
- What's The Alpha Carbon In Carbonyl Compounds?
- Nucleophilic Addition To Carbonyls
- Aldehydes and Ketones: 14 Reactions With The Same Mechanism
- Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4) Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
- Grignard Reagents For Addition To Aldehydes and Ketones
- Wittig Reaction
- Hydrates, Hemiacetals, and Acetals
- Imines - Properties, Formation, Reactions, and Mechanisms
- All About Enamines
- Breaking Down Carbonyl Reaction Mechanisms: Reactions of Anionic Nucleophiles (Part 2)
- Aldehydes Ketones Reaction Practice
21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
- Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution (With Negatively Charged Nucleophiles)
- Addition-Elimination Mechanisms With Neutral Nucleophiles (Including Acid Catalysis)
- Basic Hydrolysis of Esters - Saponification
- Proton Transfer
- Fischer Esterification - Carboxylic Acid to Ester Under Acidic Conditions
- Lithium Aluminum Hydride (LiAlH4) For Reduction of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
- LiAlH[Ot-Bu]3 For The Reduction of Acid Halides To Aldehydes
- Di-isobutyl Aluminum Hydride (DIBAL) For The Partial Reduction of Esters and Nitriles
- Amide Hydrolysis
- Thionyl Chloride (SOCl2)
- Diazomethane (CH2N2)
- Carbonyl Chemistry: Learn Six Mechanisms For the Price Of One
- Making Music With Mechanisms (PADPED)
- Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Practice Questions
22 Enols and Enolates
- Keto-Enol Tautomerism
- Enolates - Formation, Stability, and Simple Reactions
- Kinetic Versus Thermodynamic Enolates
- Aldol Addition and Condensation Reactions
- Reactions of Enols - Acid-Catalyzed Aldol, Halogenation, and Mannich Reactions
- Claisen Condensation and Dieckmann Condensation
- The Malonic Ester and Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis
- The Michael Addition Reaction and Conjugate Addition
- The Robinson Annulation
- Haloform Reaction
- The Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky Reaction
- Enols and Enolates Practice Quizzes
- The Amide Functional Group: Properties, Synthesis, and Nomenclature
- Basicity of Amines And pKaH
- 5 Key Basicity Trends of Amines
- The Mesomeric Effect And Aromatic Amines
- Nucleophilicity of Amines
- Alkylation of Amines (Sucks!)
- Reductive Amination
- The Gabriel Synthesis
- Some Reactions of Azides
- The Hofmann Elimination
- The Hofmann and Curtius Rearrangements
- The Cope Elimination
- Protecting Groups for Amines - Carbamates
- The Strecker Synthesis of Amino Acids
- Introduction to Peptide Synthesis
- Reactions of Diazonium Salts: Sandmeyer and Related Reactions
- Amine Practice Questions
- D and L Notation For Sugars
- Pyranoses and Furanoses: Ring-Chain Tautomerism In Sugars
- What is Mutarotation?
- Reducing Sugars
- The Big Damn Post Of Carbohydrate-Related Chemistry Definitions
- The Haworth Projection
- Converting a Fischer Projection To A Haworth (And Vice Versa)
- Reactions of Sugars: Glycosylation and Protection
- The Ruff Degradation and Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis
- Isoelectric Points of Amino Acids (and How To Calculate Them)
- Carbohydrates Practice
- Amino Acid Quizzes
25 Fun and Miscellaneous
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- Organic Chemistry and the New MCAT
- A Gallery of Some Interesting Molecules From Nature
- The Organic Chemistry Behind "The Pill"
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- Intramolecular Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers
- Planning Organic Synthesis With "Reaction Maps"
- Organic Chemistry Is Shit
- The 8 Types of Arrows In Organic Chemistry, Explained
- The Most Annoying Exceptions in Org 1 (Part 1)
- The Most Annoying Exceptions in Org 1 (Part 2)
- Reproducibility In Organic Chemistry
- Screw Organic Chemistry, I'm Just Going To Write About Cats
- On Cats, Part 1: Conformations and Configurations
- On Cats, Part 2: Cat Line Diagrams
- The Marriage May Be Bad, But the Divorce Still Costs Money
- Why Do Organic Chemists Use Kilocalories?
- What Holds The Nucleus Together?
- 9 Nomenclature Conventions To Know
- How Reactions Are Like Music