Alkyl Halide Reaction Map And Summary
Last updated: February 7th, 2023 |
Alkyl Halide Reaction Map
In the last post, we began our discussion of synthesis by starting with the reactions of alkanes. Since we’ve learned only one important class of alkane reactions so far (free-radical halogenation), our “reaction map” was very small.
Table of Contents
- Key Transformations of Alkyl Halides
- Substitution Reactions of Alkyl Halides: Why The SN2 Is Powerful
- What About The SN1?
- Alkyl Halides To Alkenes: Elimination Reactions
- The Alkyl Halide Reaction Map
1. Key Transformations Of Alkyl Halides
Today we will visit the reactions of a much more synthetically versatile functional group: alkyl halides. Using our analogy to airports, if alkanes can be compared to Bozeman, Montana (not exactly a hub), alkyl halides are more like Denver or ORD. There are many connecting flights!
Here are some of the reactions of alkyl halides we have covered so far, divided by the type of alkyl halide [primary, secondary, and tertiary]. Note that we are excluding alkyl fluorides here, as fluoride is not a good enough leaving group for our purposes.
2. Substitution Reactions Are Extremely Useful For Transforming Alkyl Halides Into A Wide Variety Of Functional Groups
The SN2 is an extremely versatile reaction from a synthetic standpoint.
Primary alkyl halides can be converted into a wide variety of functional groups – alcohols, ethers, thiols, azides – the list goes on.
Secondary alkyl halides can be used as well, although one has to be careful about competition with elimination reactions if the nucleophile is too basic [a good rule of thumb: species with a pKa higher than 12 will have a strong enough conjugate base to possibly produce E2 products along with SN2 products – that means you will need to pay close attention to the conditions you choose. Low temperature and polar aprotic solvents will tend to favor SN2 over E2. ].
In particular, on the diagram shown below, “strong” bases include hydroxide “HO-“, alkoxide “RO-” and “acetylide” (deprotonated alkyne), although other strong bases [such as NH2–] fall into the same category. One prominent exception in many courses is the “bulky” base tert-butoxide [(CH3)3CO-] which generally favors elimination over substitution, even on primary alkyl halides.
3. What about the SN1?
The most useful application of SN1 reactions in synthesis is in “solvolysis” reactions, where the alkyl halide is dissolved in a nucleophilic solvent such as water or an alcohol. This works best for tertiary alkyl halides. The resulting products are either alcohols (in the case of water as solvent) or ethers (when an alcohol is used as a solvent). If you care about preserving stereochemistry [at this stage, you probably don’t] don’t forget that since the SN1 proceeds through a [flat] carbocation, chiral alkyl halides will form mixtures of stereoisomers.
For secondary alkyl halides, keep in mind that carbocations can be prone to rearrangements if a more stable carbocation can form through an alkyl or hydride shift. For this reason (as well as for preserving stereochemistry) it is generally best to avoid incorporating SN1 reactions of secondary alkyl halides into a synthesis unless you are really sure that no other competing products will form. Use SN2 conditions [strong nucleophile, polar aprotic solvent] instead.
4. Alkyl Halides To Alkenes: Elimination Reactions
Elimination reactions are very useful for producing alkenes from alkyl halides. Of the two pathways by which elimination can occur (E1 and E2) the E2 is greatly preferred from a synthetic standpoint since the products of the reaction are much more predictable, it works well with both secondary and tertiary alkyl halides, and is not accompanied by rearrangements.
There are always several things to keep in mind with the E2 reaction.
- the more substituted alkene is generally formed [Zaitsev’s rule]
- the reaction proceeds with “anti” stereoselectivity
- where “cis” or “trans” alkenes can form, the “trans” alkene will be favored due to less steric hindrance
- elimination reactions are favored by heat
What about E1 reactions? Don’t they get some love? Not from a synthetic standpoint. They go through a carbocation, first of all. From a synthetic standpoint, this is bad for three reasons:
- This potentially lead to rearrangements (alkyl or hydride shifts)
- Since carbocations have a trigonal planar geometry, any hope of controlling the stereochemistry of the elimination reaction is thrown out the window.
- Furthermore, E1 reactions are almost always accompanied by SN1 byproducts, so it’s not an easy reaction to control.
There simply aren’t many situations where the E1 reaction is your best call. Use E2 conditions [strong base, polar protic solvent, heat ] instead.
This covers the main reactions of alkyl halides so far. There are more to learn, of course, but we haven’t gotten to them yet!
What we’ll do now is update the “reaction map” we made in the last post to reflect all the reactions we talked about.
How would you perform the following transformations?
Use the reaction map below.
5. The Alkyl Halide Reaction Map
Ready? Here it is.
Note: for a more complete reaction map that includes everything in Org 1, you might find the reaction map for alkynes handy.
In the next post on synthesis we’ll go through the reactions of alkenes.
For a large set of reaction maps check out the Reaction Map PDF in the MOC Store.
18 thoughts on “Alkyl Halide Reaction Map And Summary”
1) How can I convert Br into hydroxy. please suggest some report.
2) How to do fluorination?
Sir, just by looking at the substrate and nucleophile, how do we determine that it will be SN1 or SN2 reaction?
See post: Comparing the SN1 and SN2 reactions. https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/2012/08/08/comparing-the-sn1-and-sn2-reactions/
Hey, thanks for your hard work! It helps a lot :)
Will an ethyl compound with 1 Cl attached to the first C and 2 Cl attached to the second C (I could also name it but I don’t think I would get it right so…) show E1 or E2 elimination with alc. KOH?
Also if the mechanism is E2 then how will I come to know that which H and Cl I have to eliminate??
What is the reaction mechanism for converting a secondary alkyl halide to a secondary thiol?
Almost certainly just a straight SN2 reaction.
On an industrial scale, how much energy is consumed in the production of primary and secondary alkyl halides by Sn1 substitution?
IS THERE A METHOD TO MEMORIZE ALL ORGANIC REACTIONS
I would start by paying attention to the bonds that form and break. You’ll begin with memorization and then after doing that enough, you’ll start to see the patterns and memorization won’t become as important. In particular try working on simple synthesis problems. It’s like learning a language. In the beginning there’s a lot of memorization, but the more you use it the more it just becomes a part of you.
i think conversion from R-Br to R-Cl is not possible because Br ion will replace Cl ion and Cl- is not possible to replace Br ion becuase Br- is good nu as compared to Cl
It’s certainly possible, especially if Cl is used in excess. It’s an equilibrium, and excess Cl- will push the reaction to the right.
Yes it is rearrangement because in SN1 carbocation is formed
Any chance you can make the above map a downloadable PDF so I don’t have to make a screen shot?Thanks!
Yes, it’s done. Thanks
What does the “rearr” in the 8 and 6 lines of the ‘reactions map’ means? (“rearr possible with….”)
Also, a question , is it true you can make ethers using sn1 AND using sn2 reactions when the substrate is 2-bromo-3-methyl-butane and the nucleophile is NaOCH3 (OCH3-) ?
I don’t see why both types of reactions wouldn’t work with these reagents.
It means “rearrangement”, i.e. a 1,2- hydride or alkyl shift.
The nucleophile is a strong nucleophile and a good base. In the case of nucleophilic substitution. Sn2 is more likely to happen. Sn1 becomes more possible if u use methanol instead of sodium methanoate as the nucleophile.